馬偕營養師趙強建議,可每天均衡攝取魚肉,儘量避開在食物鏈頂端的大型深海魚,而選擇體型較小、魚油含量也豐富的秋刀魚、比目魚等,可能會比較安全。吃魚不僅能補充魚油,還能攝取到優質蛋白質。由於 DHA 不耐熱,魚最好以蒸烤的方式烹調,較能保留魚油中的 DHA。

大部份的孕婦在懷孕期間都會額外補充綜合維它命,通常綜合維它命內並不會包含有 DHA,所以在飲食中注意 Omega-3 的攝取變得很重要。
之前,醫生會建議孕婦們從深海魚中攝取 Omega-3,但近幾年來醫生開始反對吃太多的深海魚,因為環境污染,深海魚通常也含有高濃度的重金屬,尤其是汞。像鮭魚、鮪魚和鯖魚都是大型肉食性的魚類,含有豐富的 Omega-3,但因為也含有高濃度的汞,所以很多孕婦改從魚油膠囊來補充需要的 DHA。

目前市面上有很多品質不好或價格太高的魚油,甚至打著魚油的招牌,但每顆膠囊內卻含很低劑量的 DHA,所以在購買魚油膠囊前一定要很清楚每顆膠囊所含 DHA 的量,還有使用的魚類為何。

 
建議攝取量
歐盟對懷孕中媽媽的 DHA 建議攝取量是每天 200 毫克。

北極熊媽媽建議適合魚油產品
我們建議 DHA 含量最高的挪威北極熊魚油添加磷蝦油膠囊,只要一顆挪威北極熊魚油添加磷蝦油膠囊,197毫克的 DHA,就可滿足一天所需。另外,裹面的磷蝦油因為其抗氧化的特性,也可以讓魚油保持比較新鮮。
這款挪威北極熊魚油添加磷蝦油膠囊採用小磷蝦和小型的鯷魚,是屬食物鏈中比較底頂的生物,比較不用擔心重金屬的累積。純淨度和大型魚類比較起來就比較高。


參考資料

  1. Mulder, K.A., D.J. King, and S.M. Innis, Omega-3 fatty acid deficiency in infants before birth identified using a randomized trial of maternal DHA supplementation in pregnancy. PLoS One, 2014. 9(1): p. e83764.
  2. O’Brien, J.S., D.L. Fillerup, and J.F. Mead, Quantification and fatty acid and fatty aldehyde composition of ethanolamine, choline, and serine glycerophosphatides in human cerebral grey and white matter. Journal of lipid research, 1964. 5(3): p. 329-38.
  3. Clandinin, M.T., et al., Intrauterine fatty acid accretion rates in human brain: implications for fatty acid requirements. Early human development, 1980. 4(2): p. 121-9.
  4. Montgomery, C., et al., Maternal docosahexaenoic acid supplementation and fetal accretion. The British journal of nutrition, 2003. 90(1): p. 135-45.
  5. Otto, S.J., et al., Maternal and neonatal essential fatty acid status in phospholipids: an international comparative study. European journal of clinical nutrition, 1997. 51(4): p. 232-42.
  6. Al, M.D., et al., Maternal essential fatty acid patterns during normal pregnancy and their relationship to the neonatal essential fatty acid status. The British journal of nutrition, 1995. 74(1): p. 55-68.
  7. van den Ham, E.C., A.C. van Houwelingen, and G. Hornstra, Evaluation of the relation between n-3 and n-6 fatty acid status and parity in nonpregnant women from the Netherlands. The American journal of clinical nutrition, 2001. 73(3): p. 622-7.
  8. Krauss-Etschmann, S., et al., Effects of fish-oil and folate supplementation of pregnant women on maternal and fetal plasma concentrations of docosahexaenoic acid and eicosapentaenoic acid: a European randomized multicenter trial. Am J Clin Nutr, 2007. 85(5): p. 1392-400.